Dough deutsch

dough deutsch

Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "rolling the dough" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung im Kontext von „dough“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: dough pieces, wherein the dough, dough product, dough according, said. Übersetzung im Kontext von „the dough“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: wherein the dough, the dough pieces, the dough product. Kakao unter einen Teig mischen. A dough obtainable by the method according to any one real atletico finale claims slot free With this principle, an additional amount of air — and with it union hannover oxygen - is introduced into the dough resulting in dry, plastic and machinable doughs. Teigstücken in grösseren Mengen. A Germteig ] m. Eine Internorga Sonderedition gab es vom Teigteiler B Deep-frozen, pre-proofed dough according to Claim 11, wherein dough deutsch dough contains 0. Masse oder als Compound generell zu ermöglichen. A durchkneten ] [ lassen ]. Several polar and cold-tolerant animals, plants and microorganisms today premier league AFP, which inhibit the recrystallisation of ice and lower the freezing point of water. Moreover, the production of frozen england zweite liga tabelle goods is cost-intensive, since products have to be deep frozen and stored at low temperatures bitcoincash kurs minimize quality losses. Put all ingredients into a mixing bowl and knead for approx. Reverso beitreten Registrieren Einloggen Mit Facebook einloggen.

deutsch dough - something

Teigsystem nach den Ansprüchen 1 bis 4, in welchem der Teig entweder mit einem Treibmittel versehen ist oder nicht. In this way optimal and easy to process doughs will be produced because the mixing is done in three separate zones.. English Well now if I take that sugar dough , the sugar dough doesn't want to conduct electricity. With this principle, an additional amount of air — and with it more oxygen - is introduced into the dough resulting in dry, plastic and machinable doughs.. Brot, welches durch Aufbacken des Teigs erhältlich ist, der in irgend einem der Ansprüche 6 bis 8 beansprucht wird. Vielleicht lassen sie den Teig lange gehen, bevor sie ihn ausrollen. A dough improving composition comprising an oxidoreductase which is at least capable of oxidizing maltose and at least one further dough ingredient or dough additive.

Dough deutsch - topic

We look for possibilities to control the development of ice in dough applying antifreeze proteins AFP , to avoid gluten damage and yeast mortality and make the production more convenient by increasing the working temperature.. Beispiele, die des Teigs enthalten, ansehen 76 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. They probably let the dough sit before they roll it. We are using the following form field to detect spammers. Leave to rest for minutes and then steam or boil for around 25 minutes in salted water.. Several polar and cold-tolerant animals, plants and microorganisms have AFP, which inhibit the recrystallisation of ice and lower the freezing point of water..

In bread, calcium stearoyllactylate helps to improve the mixability of the dough and strengthen it. Chlorine is a food additive that bleaches flour products.

In cake production, the application of chlorinated flour helps to improve the structure-forming capacity. Chlorinated flour is also used in biscuit production to keep the raw dough firm and easier to handle.

It is worth to note that in some European countries such as Germany , Switzerland , and Belgium , chlorine is banned as a washing agent.

Therefore, new alternatives may be required and are being researched currently. Chlorine dioxide is a water-soluble chemical compound used as predominantly used in bleach.

Bleaching agents make the flour appear whiter, as well as oxidize the surfaces of the flour grains to help with the development of gluten.

Chlorine Dioxide can also be used as a dough conditioner which can help make the dough firm and decrease mixing time. Using Chlorine Dioxide in baking can improve the texture, size and surface smoothness of bakery goods.

L -Cysteine is a non-essential amino acid formed by the body and is used in the baking industry as a dough conditioner. This chemical compound breaks the bonds of gluten to lower the viscosity, which enhances the dough rising process during baking.

This additive also helps to keep the doughs shape by preventing shrinkage during freezing. It is commonly sold as a dough conditioner in the form of L -cysteine hydrochloride.

In bread, flour and whole wheat flour, 90 ppm of L -cysteine hydrochloride is allowed for using in Canada. In unstandardized bakery products, Good Manufacturing Practice is followed.

In baking, L -cysteine hydrochloride acts by disrupting the gluten disulfide bonds, which reduces the viscosity of the dough and therefore makes it easier to work the dough and helps the dough to rise while giving it more elasticity.

In addition, L -cysteine keeps dough shape and prevents shrinkage during dough freezing. Potassium iodate is synthesized from potassium hydroxide and iodine and acts as a fast-acting oxidant used to fully develop the dough.

Using this additive in dough strengthens the structure and enhances the elasticity which in turn, enhances the overall quality and texture of the baked goods.

It also assists in dough preparation by improving the volume and the texture of the bakery products. It strengthens the formation of disulphide bonds in gluten of the dough.

The gluten network in the dough is then strengthened. In Canada, 45 ppm of potassium iodate is permitted to be used in bread and in unstandardized bakery products.

Potassium persulfate is used to strengthen and condition dough by promoting gluten formation. Sodium stearoyllactylate SSL is an approved food additive for commercial production of dough in Canada.

SSL acts as an emulsifier in bread making and reduces the rate of staling in crumb during storage time. It can improve dough strength by forming bonds with proteins in flour during gluten development.

Sodium stearyl fumarate is a form of fumaric acid , acting as a dough conditioner , oxidant and wheat flour treatment agent in yeast-fermented products.

Sodium sulfite is a food preservative that controls harmful growth of microorganisms. In Canada, it acts as a preservative in biscuit dough.

The word "dough" is a common slang term for money in English-speaking countries; this usage is originally American, and dates to the midth century.

Similar slang terms are "having the bread" or "loaded: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the cooking ingredient.

For the British sitcom episode, see Dough Bottom. For the film, see Dough film. Baking Dough blender Dough scraper Doughboy disambiguation Farinograph — a tool that measures specific properties of flour List of breads List of fried dough foods List of pasta List of pastries Parchment paper Proofing baking technique Roller docker Royal icing Straight dough Stuffing.

Handbook of Food Engineering Process. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. This reference is specifically about cake batter.

Office for Science and Society". Nootriment - Health Supplement Reviews and Research. Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Subscription or UK public library membership required.

Breadmaking Baker percentage Bread in Europe History of bread. List of cuisines Lists of prepared foods. Retrieved from " https: Articles with hAudio microformats All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from February Commons category link from Wikidata.

In Morocco , Sfenj is a similar pastry eaten sprinkled with sugar or soaked in honey. A few sweet, doughnut-style pastries are regional in nature.

Chinese restaurants in the United States sometimes serve small fried pastries similar to doughnut holes with condensed milk as a sauce. These pastries are not sweet and are often served with congee , a traditional rice porridge.

In India , an old-fashioned sweet called gulgula is made of sweetened, deep-fried flour balls. A leavening agent may or may not be used.

In India , there are a couple of unrelated doughnut-shaped food items. A savory, fried, ring-shaped snack called a vada is often referred to as the Indian doughnut.

The vada is made from dal , lentil or potato flours rather than wheat flour. In South India, a vada is eaten with sambar and a coconut chutney. Sweet pastries similar to old-fashioned doughnuts called badushahi and jalebi are also popular.

Balushahi , also called badushah , is made from flour, deep fried in clarified butter, and dipped in sugar syrup. Unlike a doughnut, balushahi is dense.

A balushahi is ring-shaped, but the well in the center does not go all the way through to form a hole typical of a doughnut.

Jalebi , which is typically pretzel-shaped, is made by deep frying batter in oil and soaking it in sugar syrup.

Along with these Indian variants, typical varieties of doughnuts are also available from U. The Persian zoolbia and bamiyeh are fritters of various shapes and sizes coated in a sugar syrup.

Traditional sufganiyot are filled with red jelly and topped with icing sugar. However, many other varieties exist, with some being filled with dulce de leche particularly common after the South American aliyah early in the 21st century.

Mister Donut is one of the most popular doughnut chains in Japan. Native to Okinawa is a spheroid pastry similar to doughnuts called sata andagi.

Kuih keria is a hole doughnut made from boiled sweet potato that is mashed. The sweet potato mash is shaped into rings and fried.

The hot doughnut is then rolled in granulated sugar. The result is a doughnut with a sugar-crusted skin. Sel roti is a Nepali homemade, ring-shaped, rice doughnut prepared during Tihar , the widely celebrated Hindu festival in Nepal.

A semiliquid dough is usually prepared by adding milk, water, sugar, butter, cardamom, and mashed banana to rice flour, which is often left to ferment for up to 24 hours.

A sel roti is traditionally fried in ghee. Doughnuts are available at most bakeries across Pakistan. The Navaz Sharif variety, available mainly in the city of Karachi , is covered in chocolate and filled with cream, similar to a Boston cream.

Native doughnut recipes include the shakoy , kumukunsi , and binangkal. Shakoy or siyakoy from the Visayas islands also known as lubid-lubid in the northern Philippines uses a length of dough twisted into a distinctive rope-like shape before being fried.

The preparation is almost exactly the same as doughnuts, though there are variants made from glutinous rice flour. The texture can range from soft and fluffy, to sticky and chewy, to hard and crunchy.

They are sprinkled with white sugar, but can also be topped with sesame seeds or caramelized sugar. It is made with rice flour , duck eggs, and sugar that is molded into rope-like strands and then fried in a loose spiral.

It has the taste and consistency of a creamy pancake. Often sold from food stalls in markets or by the side of the road, these doughnuts are small, sometimes X-shaped, and sold by the bag full.

In Austria , doughnut equivalents are called Krapfen. They are especially popular during Carneval season Fasching , and do not have the typical ring shape, but instead are solid and usually filled with apricot jam traditional or vanilla cream Vanillekrapfen.

In Belgium , the smoutebollen in Dutch, or croustillons in French, are similar to the Dutch kind of oliebollen , but they usually do not contain any fruit, except for apple chunks sometimes.

They are typical carnival and fair snacks and are coated with powdered sugar. Doughnuts similar to the Berliner are prepared in the northern Balkans, particularly in Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia , Macedonia and Serbia pokladnice or krofne.

They are also called krofna , krafna or krafne , a name derived from the Austrian Krapfen for this pastry. In Croatia, they are especially popular during Carneval season and do not have the typical ring shape, but instead are solid.

Traditionally, they are filled with jam apricot or plum. However, they can be filled with vanilla or chocolate cream. The shape is similar to doughnuts in Germany or Poland.

They are called Kobliha Koblihy in plural. They may be filed with nougat or with vanilla custard. There are now many fillings; cut in half [ clarification needed ] or non-filled knots with sugar and cinnamon on top.

In Denmark , U. The Berliner , however, is also available in bakeries. It is sold cold and sometimes filled with jam like U. A ring doughnut is also known as donitsi.

A savory form of doughnut is the meat doughnut in Finnish lihapiirakka , or literally meat pie. Made from a doughnut mixture and deep fried, the end product is more akin to a savory doughnut than any pie known in the English-speaking world.

The French beignet , literally "bump", [66] is the French and New Orleans equivalent of a doughnut: In parts of Germany , the doughnut equivalents are called Berliner sg.

In middle Germany, doughnuts are called Kreppel or Pfannkuchen. A Berliner does not have the typical ring shape of a doughnut, but instead is solid and usually filled with jam, while a ring-shaped variant called Kameruner is common in Berlin and eastern Germany.

It is often served with sprinkled cinnamon and grated walnuts or sesame seeds. The most commonly used ingredients are flour , yeast , butter , egg yolk , rum , salt , milk and oil for frying.

The dough is allowed to rise for approximately 30 minutes, resulting in an extremely light pastry. It is supposed [ by whom?

In Iceland kleinuhringur pl. The Berliner and other types of doughnuts can only be found on one day of the year, a holiday called Bolludagur , i.

Italian doughnuts include ciambelle , krapfen , zippuli and zeppole from Calabria , maritozzi and bomboloni from Tuscany , and frittelle from Veneto.

In Lithuania , a kind of doughnut called spurgos is widely known. In the Netherlands , oliebollen , referred to in cookbooks as "Dutch doughnuts", are a type of fritter, with or without raisins or currants , and usually sprinkled with powdered sugar.

Variations of the recipe contain slices of apple or other fruits. They are traditionally eaten as part of New Year celebrations.

In Norway, smultring is the prevailing type of doughnut traditionally sold in bakeries, shops, and stalls. The Berliner is more common than U.

In Poland and parts of the U. They are stuffed with chocolate, jam, cheese and other combinations and may be dusted with icing sugar.

In Russia and the other Post-Soviet countries , ponchiki Russian: Petersburg are a very popular sweet doughnut, with many fast and simple recipes available in Russian cookbooks for making them at home as a breakfast or coffee pastry.

In Slovenia , a jam-filled doughnut known as krofi , is very popular. It is the typical sweet during Carnival time, but is to be found in most bakeries during the whole year.

The most famous krofi come from the village of Trojane in central Slovenia, and are originally filled with apricot jam filling. In Spain , there are two different types of doughnuts.

The first one, simply called donuts , or more traditionally berlinesas , is a U. The second type of doughnut is a traditional pastry called rosquilla , made of fermented dough and fried or baked in an oven.

Rosaquillas were purportedly introduced in Spain by the Romans. In some regions they are considered a special pastry prepared only for Easter. The churro is a sweet pastry of deep-fried dough similar to a doughnut but shaped as a long, thin, ribbed cylinder rather than a ring or sphere.

Churros are commonly served dusted in sugar as a snack or with a cup of hot chocolate. Similar to the Finnish munkki , the Swedish munk is a sweet doughnut commonly eaten as fika along with coffee.

It is sold cold and is sometimes filled with jam U. A ring doughnut is also known as simply munk. In Ukraine doughnuts are called pampushky Ukrainian: Pampusky are made of yeast dough containing wheat, rye or bukwheat flour.

Traditionally they are baked, but may also be fried. According to William Pokhlyobkin , the technology of making pampushky points to German cuisine, and these buns were possibly created by German colonists in Ukraine.

Glazed, twisted rope-shaped doughnuts are known as yum-yums. It is also possible to buy fudge doughnuts in certain regions of Scotland.

Fillings include jam, custard, cream, sweet mincemeat, chocolate and apple. Common ring toppings are sprinkle-iced and chocolate.

In Northern Ireland , ring doughnuts are known as gravy rings , gravy being an archaic term for hot cooking oil. A kurma is a small, sweet, fried cube-shaped or rectangular doughnut which originated in Eastern India but is sold in Trinidad and Tobago.

A traditional Puntarenas cream-filled doughnut is round and robust, managing to keep the cream inside liquified. They are popular in Costa Rica.

The Mexican donas are similar to doughnuts, including the name; the dona is a fried-dough pastry -based snack , commonly covered with powdered brown sugar and cinnamon , white sugar or chocolate.

Frosted, glazed, powdered, Boston cream , coconut , sour cream , cinnamon, chocolate, and jelly are some of the varieties eaten in the United States and Canada.

Sweetening, filling, and fancy toppings are now so common that plain doughnuts are now commonly labeled and sold as "old fashioned".

There are also potato doughnuts sometimes referred to as spudnuts. Doughnuts are ubiquitous in the United States and can be found in most grocery stores, as well as in specialty doughnut shops.

A popular doughnut in Hawaii is the malasada. They are small eggy balls of yeast dough deep-fried and coated in sugar.

Immigrants have brought various doughnut varieties to the United States. To celebrate Fat Tuesday in eastern Pennsylvania , churches sell a potato starch doughnut called a Fastnacht or Fasnacht.

The treats are so popular there that Fat Tuesday is often called Fastnacht Day. In regions of the country where apples are widely grown, especially the Northeast and Midwest states, cider doughnuts are a harvest season specialty, especially at orchards open to tourists, where they can be served fresh.

Cider doughnuts are a cake doughnut with apple cider in the batter. The use of cider affects both the texture and flavor, resulting in a denser, moister product.

They are often coated with either granulated or powdered sugar or cinnamon sugar. In Southern Louisiana, a popular variety of the doughnut is the beignet , a fried, square doughnut served traditionally with powdered sugar.

In Australia , the doughnut is a popular snack food. Jam doughnuts are particularly popular [78] and a unique aspect of Australian culture, especially in Melbourne , Victoria and the Queen Victoria Market , where they are a tradition.

Jam doughnuts are sometimes also bought frozen. In South Australia , they are known as Berliner or Kitchener and often served in cafes.

Popular variants include custard-filled doughnuts, and more recently Nutella -filled doughnuts. Mobile vans that serve doughnuts, traditional or jam, are often seen at spectator events, markets, carnivals and fetes, and by the roadside near high-traffic areas like airports and the carparks of large shopping centres.

Traditional cinnamon doughnuts are readily available in Australia from specialised retailers and convenience stores.

Doughnuts are a popular choice for schools and other not-for-profit groups to cook and sell as a fundraiser.

In New Zealand, the doughnut is a popular food snack available in corner dairies. They are in the form of a long sweet bread roll with a deep cut down its long axis.

In this cut is placed a long dollop of sweetened clotted cream and on top of this is a spot of strawberry jam. Doughnuts are of two varieties: The rounded variety is widely available as well.

In Brazil , bakeries, grocery stores and pastry shops sell ball-shaped doughnuts popularly known as "sonhos" lit.

The dessert was brought to Brazil by Portuguese colonizers that had contact with Dutch and German traders. They are the equivalent of nowadays "bolas de Berlim" lit.

They are made of a special type of bread filled with "goiabada" guava jelly or milk cream, and covered by white sugar. Berlin plural Berlines doughnut is popular in Chile because of the large German community.

It may be filled with jam or with manjar , the Chilean version of dulce de leche. Peruvian cuisine includes picarones which are doughnut-shaped fritters made with a squash and sweet potato base.

These snacks are almost always served with a drizzle of sweet molasses-based sauce. The doughnut has made an appearance in popular culture, particularly in the United States and Australia.

References extend to objects or actions that are doughnut-shaped. A Guinness Book of Records largest doughnut made up of 90, individual doughnuts was set in Sydney in as part of a celebration for the release of The Simpsons Movie.

Per capita, Canadians consume the most doughnuts, and Canada has the most doughnut stores per capita. Within the United States, the Providence metropolitan area was cited as having the most doughnut shops per capita There is a race in Staunton, Illinois , featuring doughnuts, called Tour de Donut.

In the cartoon Mucha Lucha , there are four things that make up the code of mask wrestling: In several media, doughnuts are frequently presented as enjoyed by police officers during coffee break.

Citizens on Patrol , where Officer Zed is instructing new recruits how to "properly" consume their doughnuts with coffee.

It is also parodied in the television series Twin Peaks , where the police station is always in large supply. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the food. For the shape, see Torus. For other uses, see Doughnut disambiguation.

Dough Deutsch Video

How to Make Play Doh Rainbow Von der Verwendung dieses Materials in Backwaren wird eine verlängerte Frischhaltung, verringerter Backverlust und weniger gefrierbedingte Schäden an Klein- Gebäckstücken erwartet.. Um eine neue Diskussion zu starten, müssen Sie angemeldet sein. Method and device for treating waste dough to make new dough. Then stretch and twist the dough. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch this dough is leavened with yeast. Teigverbessernde Zusammensetzung, umfassend eine Oxydoreduktase, die zumindest in der Lage ist, Maltose zu oxidieren, und mindestens einen weiteren Teigbestandteil oder Teigzusatzstoff. Wenn Sie die Vokabeln in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen möchten, klicken Sie in der Vokabelliste einfach auf "Vokabeln übertragen". Reverso beitreten Registrieren Einloggen Mit Facebook einloggen. Moreover, the production of frozen bakery goods is cost-intensive, since products have to be deep frozen and stored at low temperatures to minimize quality losses. Die korrekte sprachliche Einordnung und Bewertung der Beispielsätze ist für einen Sprachanfänger oder Schüler der Grund- und Mittelstufen nicht immer einfach. Verfahren zur Bestimmung des Teigträgertyp ; Teigbearbeitungsstrasse und Teigträger. Übersetzung für "the dough" im Deutsch Siehe auch:

Crackers are also made from dough, and some such as saltine crackers [2] are leavened. Pasta and noodles are generally based on unleavened doughs that are worked until they are dry and smooth, and then shaped into their final form.

The finished pasta may be cooked immediately or dried before cooking. Doughs with higher fat content have a lesser water content, develop less gluten and are therefore generally less elastic than bread doughs; these doughs are often called "short" by bakers.

This category includes many cookie and pie crust doughs, such as shortcrust pastry. In many parts of central India , people use the quick method of making an instant roasted dough ball or baati.

In countries in the Sahel region of Africa, dough balls called aiysh or biya are made from sorghum or millet , and are ground and boiled. Quick breads use leavening agents other than yeast such as baking powder or baking soda , and include most cookies , cakes , biscuits , and more; these may be based on a batter or a dough.

For yeast-based and sponge such as sourdough breads, a common production technique is the dough is mixed, kneaded, and then left to rise.

Many bread doughs call for a second stage, where the dough is kneaded again, shaped into the final form, and left to rise a final time or proofed before baking.

Pasta is typically made from a dry dough that is kneaded and shaped, either through extrusion , rolling out in a pasta machine, or stretched or shaped by hand as for gnocchi or dumplings.

Pasta may be cooked directly after production so-called " fresh pasta " or dried, which renders it shelf-stable.

Doughs for biscuits and many flatbreads which are not leavened with yeast are typically mixed but not kneaded or left to rise; these doughs are shaped and cooked directly after mixing.

While breads and other products made from doughs are often baked , some types of dough-based foods are cooked over direct heat, such as tortillas , which are cooked directly on a griddle.

Fried dough foods are also common in many cultures. Pancakes , waffles , some kinds of bar cookies such as brownies , and many cakes and quick breads including muffins and the like are often made with a semi-liquid batter of flour and liquid that is poured into the final shape, rather than a solid dough.

Unlike bread dough, these batters are not stabilized by the formation of a gluten network. Yeast bread dough after rising proofing , for 40 minutes.

Dough being extruded from a pasta machine. Acetone peroxide is an oxidizing agent used to mature and strengthen flour. This product speeds up the oxidation process which allows companies to produce baked goods faster and more efficiently.

Ammonium persulfate is used in baking, which acts to improve baking quality and color of flour. This additive supplies nitrogen for the yeast which improves consistency, volume and shelf life.

It also serves to control the pH of flour and baked products. Ascorbic acid , otherwise known as vitamin C, is used as an antioxidant in dough.

By controlling the amount of oxygen reacting with the bread products, it acts to promote optimal taste and texture. It is also used as an ingredient preservative in baked goods, as it increases the shelf life by controlling oxidation.

Azodicarbonamide is used as a bleaching agent in flour and helps the dough rise through its conditioning properties. Benzoyl peroxide is used as a bleaching agent in white and whole wheat flour within specific quantities.

Calcium iodate is a food additive used to condition dough by reducing the amount of yeast required to raise dough. In Canada, it is found in unstandardized bakery products and bread, at trace quantities.

Calcium peroxide is a food additive that helps to whiten flour due to the bleaching powers of peroxide. Further, it is often applied in oral products such as toothpaste as a whitening agent.

However, its effectiveness is doubted. Calcium stearoyllactylate is a food additive that is found in many food products, such as baked goods, desserts , powdered drink mixes, dehydrated potatoes, and chewing gums.

In Canada, it is commonly used in yeast- leavened recipes as an emulsifier during bread making. In bread, calcium stearoyllactylate helps to improve the mixability of the dough and strengthen it.

Chlorine is a food additive that bleaches flour products. In cake production, the application of chlorinated flour helps to improve the structure-forming capacity.

Chlorinated flour is also used in biscuit production to keep the raw dough firm and easier to handle. It is worth to note that in some European countries such as Germany , Switzerland , and Belgium , chlorine is banned as a washing agent.

Therefore, new alternatives may be required and are being researched currently. Chlorine dioxide is a water-soluble chemical compound used as predominantly used in bleach.

Bleaching agents make the flour appear whiter, as well as oxidize the surfaces of the flour grains to help with the development of gluten.

Chlorine Dioxide can also be used as a dough conditioner which can help make the dough firm and decrease mixing time.

Using Chlorine Dioxide in baking can improve the texture, size and surface smoothness of bakery goods. L -Cysteine is a non-essential amino acid formed by the body and is used in the baking industry as a dough conditioner.

This chemical compound breaks the bonds of gluten to lower the viscosity, which enhances the dough rising process during baking. This additive also helps to keep the doughs shape by preventing shrinkage during freezing.

Sucrose is a simple carbohydrate whose structure is made up of a glucose molecule bound to a fructose molecule. These solids are obtained by removing most of the water from skim milk with heat, and this heat additionally denatures the whey proteins and increases the absorption properties of the remaining proteins.

The major whey protein in the nonfat milk solids is known as beta-lactoglobulin, and a crucial feature of its structure is that there exists a single sulfhydryl group that is protected by the alpha helix, and when heating of the milk solids occurs, these groups participate in disulfide exchanges with other molecules.

This interchange prevents the renaturation of the whey proteins. For example, sugar and salt crystals must be dissolved in order for them to act in the dough, whereas larger molecules, such as the starches or proteins, must be hydrated in order for them to absorb moisture.

Pure water consists of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen, but water used in baking often is not pure. Doughnuts are unhealthy, [38] some less so than others.

This property measures the ability of the dough to flow. It can be represented by the power law equation: Dough is usually described as a viscoelastic material, meaning that its rheology depends on both the viscosity and the elasticity.

The viscosity coefficient and the flow index are unique to the type of dough being analyzed, while the tangentic stress and the shear rate are measurements obtained depending on the type force being applied to the dough.

In South Africa , an Afrikaans variation known as the koeksister is popular. Another variation, similar in name, is the Cape Malay koesister being soaked in a spiced syrup and coated in coconut.

It has a texture similar to more traditional doughnuts as opposed to the Afrikaans variety. It is served with mince, syrup, honey or jam.

In Tunisia , traditional pastries similar to doughnuts are yo-yos. They come in different versions both as balls and in shape of doughnuts.

They are deep-fried and covered in a honey syrup or a kind of frosting. Sesame seeds are also used for flavor and decoration along with orange juice and vanilla.

In Morocco , Sfenj is a similar pastry eaten sprinkled with sugar or soaked in honey. A few sweet, doughnut-style pastries are regional in nature.

Chinese restaurants in the United States sometimes serve small fried pastries similar to doughnut holes with condensed milk as a sauce. These pastries are not sweet and are often served with congee , a traditional rice porridge.

In India , an old-fashioned sweet called gulgula is made of sweetened, deep-fried flour balls. A leavening agent may or may not be used.

In India , there are a couple of unrelated doughnut-shaped food items. A savory, fried, ring-shaped snack called a vada is often referred to as the Indian doughnut.

The vada is made from dal , lentil or potato flours rather than wheat flour. In South India, a vada is eaten with sambar and a coconut chutney.

Sweet pastries similar to old-fashioned doughnuts called badushahi and jalebi are also popular. Balushahi , also called badushah , is made from flour, deep fried in clarified butter, and dipped in sugar syrup.

Unlike a doughnut, balushahi is dense. A balushahi is ring-shaped, but the well in the center does not go all the way through to form a hole typical of a doughnut.

Jalebi , which is typically pretzel-shaped, is made by deep frying batter in oil and soaking it in sugar syrup. Along with these Indian variants, typical varieties of doughnuts are also available from U.

The Persian zoolbia and bamiyeh are fritters of various shapes and sizes coated in a sugar syrup. Traditional sufganiyot are filled with red jelly and topped with icing sugar.

However, many other varieties exist, with some being filled with dulce de leche particularly common after the South American aliyah early in the 21st century.

Mister Donut is one of the most popular doughnut chains in Japan. Native to Okinawa is a spheroid pastry similar to doughnuts called sata andagi.

Kuih keria is a hole doughnut made from boiled sweet potato that is mashed. The sweet potato mash is shaped into rings and fried. The hot doughnut is then rolled in granulated sugar.

The result is a doughnut with a sugar-crusted skin. Sel roti is a Nepali homemade, ring-shaped, rice doughnut prepared during Tihar , the widely celebrated Hindu festival in Nepal.

A semiliquid dough is usually prepared by adding milk, water, sugar, butter, cardamom, and mashed banana to rice flour, which is often left to ferment for up to 24 hours.

A sel roti is traditionally fried in ghee. Doughnuts are available at most bakeries across Pakistan. The Navaz Sharif variety, available mainly in the city of Karachi , is covered in chocolate and filled with cream, similar to a Boston cream.

Native doughnut recipes include the shakoy , kumukunsi , and binangkal. Shakoy or siyakoy from the Visayas islands also known as lubid-lubid in the northern Philippines uses a length of dough twisted into a distinctive rope-like shape before being fried.

The preparation is almost exactly the same as doughnuts, though there are variants made from glutinous rice flour.

The texture can range from soft and fluffy, to sticky and chewy, to hard and crunchy. They are sprinkled with white sugar, but can also be topped with sesame seeds or caramelized sugar.

It is made with rice flour , duck eggs, and sugar that is molded into rope-like strands and then fried in a loose spiral.

It has the taste and consistency of a creamy pancake. Often sold from food stalls in markets or by the side of the road, these doughnuts are small, sometimes X-shaped, and sold by the bag full.

In Austria , doughnut equivalents are called Krapfen. They are especially popular during Carneval season Fasching , and do not have the typical ring shape, but instead are solid and usually filled with apricot jam traditional or vanilla cream Vanillekrapfen.

In Belgium , the smoutebollen in Dutch, or croustillons in French, are similar to the Dutch kind of oliebollen , but they usually do not contain any fruit, except for apple chunks sometimes.

They are typical carnival and fair snacks and are coated with powdered sugar. Doughnuts similar to the Berliner are prepared in the northern Balkans, particularly in Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia , Macedonia and Serbia pokladnice or krofne.

They are also called krofna , krafna or krafne , a name derived from the Austrian Krapfen for this pastry. In Croatia, they are especially popular during Carneval season and do not have the typical ring shape, but instead are solid.

Traditionally, they are filled with jam apricot or plum. However, they can be filled with vanilla or chocolate cream. The shape is similar to doughnuts in Germany or Poland.

They are called Kobliha Koblihy in plural. They may be filed with nougat or with vanilla custard. There are now many fillings; cut in half [ clarification needed ] or non-filled knots with sugar and cinnamon on top.

In Denmark , U. The Berliner , however, is also available in bakeries. It is sold cold and sometimes filled with jam like U.

A ring doughnut is also known as donitsi. A savory form of doughnut is the meat doughnut in Finnish lihapiirakka , or literally meat pie.

Made from a doughnut mixture and deep fried, the end product is more akin to a savory doughnut than any pie known in the English-speaking world.

The French beignet , literally "bump", [66] is the French and New Orleans equivalent of a doughnut: In parts of Germany , the doughnut equivalents are called Berliner sg.

In middle Germany, doughnuts are called Kreppel or Pfannkuchen. A Berliner does not have the typical ring shape of a doughnut, but instead is solid and usually filled with jam, while a ring-shaped variant called Kameruner is common in Berlin and eastern Germany.

It is often served with sprinkled cinnamon and grated walnuts or sesame seeds. The most commonly used ingredients are flour , yeast , butter , egg yolk , rum , salt , milk and oil for frying.

The dough is allowed to rise for approximately 30 minutes, resulting in an extremely light pastry. It is supposed [ by whom?

In Iceland kleinuhringur pl. The Berliner and other types of doughnuts can only be found on one day of the year, a holiday called Bolludagur , i.

Italian doughnuts include ciambelle , krapfen , zippuli and zeppole from Calabria , maritozzi and bomboloni from Tuscany , and frittelle from Veneto.

In Lithuania , a kind of doughnut called spurgos is widely known. In the Netherlands , oliebollen , referred to in cookbooks as "Dutch doughnuts", are a type of fritter, with or without raisins or currants , and usually sprinkled with powdered sugar.

Variations of the recipe contain slices of apple or other fruits. They are traditionally eaten as part of New Year celebrations.

In Norway, smultring is the prevailing type of doughnut traditionally sold in bakeries, shops, and stalls.

The Berliner is more common than U. In Poland and parts of the U. They are stuffed with chocolate, jam, cheese and other combinations and may be dusted with icing sugar.

In Russia and the other Post-Soviet countries , ponchiki Russian: Petersburg are a very popular sweet doughnut, with many fast and simple recipes available in Russian cookbooks for making them at home as a breakfast or coffee pastry.

In Slovenia , a jam-filled doughnut known as krofi , is very popular. It is the typical sweet during Carnival time, but is to be found in most bakeries during the whole year.

The most famous krofi come from the village of Trojane in central Slovenia, and are originally filled with apricot jam filling.

In Spain , there are two different types of doughnuts. The first one, simply called donuts , or more traditionally berlinesas , is a U. The second type of doughnut is a traditional pastry called rosquilla , made of fermented dough and fried or baked in an oven.

Rosaquillas were purportedly introduced in Spain by the Romans. In some regions they are considered a special pastry prepared only for Easter. The churro is a sweet pastry of deep-fried dough similar to a doughnut but shaped as a long, thin, ribbed cylinder rather than a ring or sphere.

Churros are commonly served dusted in sugar as a snack or with a cup of hot chocolate. Similar to the Finnish munkki , the Swedish munk is a sweet doughnut commonly eaten as fika along with coffee.

It is sold cold and is sometimes filled with jam U. A ring doughnut is also known as simply munk. In Ukraine doughnuts are called pampushky Ukrainian: Pampusky are made of yeast dough containing wheat, rye or bukwheat flour.

Traditionally they are baked, but may also be fried. According to William Pokhlyobkin , the technology of making pampushky points to German cuisine, and these buns were possibly created by German colonists in Ukraine.

Glazed, twisted rope-shaped doughnuts are known as yum-yums. It is also possible to buy fudge doughnuts in certain regions of Scotland.

Fillings include jam, custard, cream, sweet mincemeat, chocolate and apple. Common ring toppings are sprinkle-iced and chocolate. In Northern Ireland , ring doughnuts are known as gravy rings , gravy being an archaic term for hot cooking oil.

A kurma is a small, sweet, fried cube-shaped or rectangular doughnut which originated in Eastern India but is sold in Trinidad and Tobago. A traditional Puntarenas cream-filled doughnut is round and robust, managing to keep the cream inside liquified.

They are popular in Costa Rica. The Mexican donas are similar to doughnuts, including the name; the dona is a fried-dough pastry -based snack , commonly covered with powdered brown sugar and cinnamon , white sugar or chocolate.

Frosted, glazed, powdered, Boston cream , coconut , sour cream , cinnamon, chocolate, and jelly are some of the varieties eaten in the United States and Canada.

Sweetening, filling, and fancy toppings are now so common that plain doughnuts are now commonly labeled and sold as "old fashioned".

There are also potato doughnuts sometimes referred to as spudnuts. Doughnuts are ubiquitous in the United States and can be found in most grocery stores, as well as in specialty doughnut shops.

A popular doughnut in Hawaii is the malasada. They are small eggy balls of yeast dough deep-fried and coated in sugar.

Immigrants have brought various doughnut varieties to the United States. To celebrate Fat Tuesday in eastern Pennsylvania , churches sell a potato starch doughnut called a Fastnacht or Fasnacht.

The treats are so popular there that Fat Tuesday is often called Fastnacht Day. In regions of the country where apples are widely grown, especially the Northeast and Midwest states, cider doughnuts are a harvest season specialty, especially at orchards open to tourists, where they can be served fresh.

Cider doughnuts are a cake doughnut with apple cider in the batter. The use of cider affects both the texture and flavor, resulting in a denser, moister product.

They are often coated with either granulated or powdered sugar or cinnamon sugar. In Southern Louisiana, a popular variety of the doughnut is the beignet , a fried, square doughnut served traditionally with powdered sugar.

In Australia , the doughnut is a popular snack food. Jam doughnuts are particularly popular [78] and a unique aspect of Australian culture, especially in Melbourne , Victoria and the Queen Victoria Market , where they are a tradition.

Jam doughnuts are sometimes also bought frozen. In South Australia , they are known as Berliner or Kitchener and often served in cafes. Popular variants include custard-filled doughnuts, and more recently Nutella -filled doughnuts.

Mobile vans that serve doughnuts, traditional or jam, are often seen at spectator events, markets, carnivals and fetes, and by the roadside near high-traffic areas like airports and the carparks of large shopping centres.

Traditional cinnamon doughnuts are readily available in Australia from specialised retailers and convenience stores. Doughnuts are a popular choice for schools and other not-for-profit groups to cook and sell as a fundraiser.

In New Zealand, the doughnut is a popular food snack available in corner dairies. They are in the form of a long sweet bread roll with a deep cut down its long axis.

In this cut is placed a long dollop of sweetened clotted cream and on top of this is a spot of strawberry jam. Doughnuts are of two varieties: The rounded variety is widely available as well.

In Brazil , bakeries, grocery stores and pastry shops sell ball-shaped doughnuts popularly known as "sonhos" lit.

The dessert was brought to Brazil by Portuguese colonizers that had contact with Dutch and German traders. They are the equivalent of nowadays "bolas de Berlim" lit.

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